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History of Iran

History

Before the migration of Arians to Iranian Plateau, people with different civilizations lived in Iran. The present land of Iran is a large part of a geographical unit named Iranian Plateau. This natural unit with its climatic and biological diversity has distinguishing features that have caused the cultural unity of Iran. There is no doubt that human civilization indebted to the genius and creativity of the people who lived in this land for many years and created their cultural history and civilization over time interacting with the geography and natural system ruling there.

When one talks about the history of Iran, it should be noted that which history one means: the history of ethnicities and people who have lived from the beginning of history to this day inside the political borders of modern Iran, or the history of ethnicities and people who somehow called themselves Iranian and lived in the geographical borders including the modern Iran and the lands historically considered as parts of the Greater Iran (Iranshahr). Sometimes the history of Iran is said to be started from the arrival of Arians (who are the origin of the name Iran) in Iranian Plateau. However, this does not mean that Iranian Plateau was devoid of any inhabitant or civilization before their arrival. Before Arians arrived in Iranian Plateau, very ancient civilizations had flourished and withered in this place and some had still been flourishing. For instance, Burnt City civilization (in Sistan), Elamite civilization (North of Khuzestan), Jiroft civilization (in Kerman), the civilization of Tepe Sialk inhabitants (in Kashan), Urartu civilization (in Azerbaijan), Gian Hill (in Nahavand), and Mannaeans in Kordestan and Azerbaijan, and Kassites (in modern Lorestan) are among these civilizations.

Arians were of Indo-European race and lived in the North of Iranian Plateau. Arians’ migration to Iranian Plateau was a gradual migration starting from Neolithic Age (7000 B.C.) and continuing until 4000 B.C.


Cyrus the Great کوروش کبیر Location and Geographical Coordinates
The country of Iran with an area of 1,648,195 Square Kilometers and 31 provinces is considered as the world’s 16th largest country. Iran is located in northern hemisphere, eastern hemisphere in Asia and in western part of Iranian Plateau and is among Middle Eastern countries. It is considered as a mountainous country.

From natural point of view, Iran is bound by Khwarezm Desert, Caspian Sea and Kura River in the North; Amu Darya Basin, western mountains of Indus Valley, and skirts of Pamir western mountains in the East; the western skirts of Zagros Mountains and Arvand River catchments in the West; and Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in the South.

Iran, which is one of the Southwestern Asian countries (the Middle East), shares borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan in the East, Turkmenistan in the Northeast, Caspian Sea in the North, Azerbaijan Republic and Armenia in the Northwest, Turkey and Iraq in the West, and finally the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in the South.

From geographical point of view, Kelisa Kandi is the westernmost, Jalegh is the easternmost, Parsabad is the northernmost, and Chabahar is the southernmost cities of Iran.

Iran has a diversified weather and this diversity can be easily seen by comparing different parts of the country.

Iran’s capital city is Tehran and 98% of Iranian people are Muslim. Iran’s name in Old Persian was Airiana, which means the land of Aryans. In European languages, this land was called Perse or Persia, but since the request of Iranian rulers in First Pahlavi era, most countries have called this land its indigenous name Iran.

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Zafaranieh Plaza | مجتمع تجاری زعفرانيه
Zafaranieh Plaza | مجتمع تجاری زعفرانيه

Kish Commercial Center
Kish Commercial Center



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